In light of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, many businesses are interested in donating to charity. In order to incentivize charitable giving, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act made some liberalizations to the rules governing charitable deductions.
Before the CARES Act, the total charitable deduction that a corporation could generally claim for the year couldn’t exceed 10% of corporate taxable income (as determined with several modifications for these purposes).
Contributions in excess of the 10% limit are carried forward and may be used during the next five years (subject to the 10%-of-taxable-income limitation each year).
What changed? Under the CARES Act, the limitation on charitable deductions for corporations (generally 10% of modified taxable income) doesn’t apply to qualifying contributions made in 2020.
Instead, a corporation’s qualifying contributions, reduced by other contributions, can be as much as 25% of taxable income (modified). No connection between the contributions and COVID-19 activities is required.
At a time when many people are unemployed, your business may want to contribute food inventory to qualified charities.
In general, a business is entitled to a charitable tax deduction for making a qualified contribution of “apparently wholesome food” to an organization that uses it for the care of the ill, the needy, or infants.
“Apparently wholesome food” is defined as food intended for human consumption that meets all quality and labeling standards imposed by federal, state, and local laws and regulations, even though it may not be readily marketable due to appearance, age, freshness, grade, size, surplus, or other conditions.
Before the CARES Act, the aggregate amount of such food contributions that could be taken into account for the tax year generally couldn’t exceed 15% of the taxpayer’s aggregate net income for that tax year from all trades or businesses from which the contributions were made. This was computed without regard to the charitable deduction for food inventory contributions.
What changed? Under the CARES Act, for contributions of food inventory made in 2020, the deduction limitation increases from 15% to 25% of taxable income for C corporations.
For other business taxpayers, it increases from 15% to 25% of the net aggregate income from all businesses from which the contributions were made.
Be aware that in addition to these changes affecting businesses, the CARES Act also made changes to the charitable deduction rules for individuals.
Contact David Mills, CPA, LLC if you have questions about making charitable donations and securing a tax break for them. We can explain the rules and compute the maximum deduction for your generosity.
Specifically, an expense isn’t deductible if both:
The CARES Act allows a recipient of a PPP loan to use the proceeds to pay payroll costs, certain employee healthcare benefits, mortgage interest, rent, utilities, and interest on other existing debt obligations.
A recipient of a covered loan can receive forgiveness of the loan in an amount equal to the sum of payments made for the following expenses during the 8-week “covered period” beginning on the loan’s origination date:
The law provides that any forgiven loan amount “shall be excluded from gross income.”
So the question arises: If you pay for the above expenses with PPP funds, can you then deduct the expenses on your tax return?
The tax code generally provides for a deduction for all ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on a trade or business.
Covered rent obligations, covered utility payments, and payroll costs consisting of wages and benefits paid to employees comprise typical trade or business expenses for which a deduction generally is appropriate.
The tax code also provides a deduction for certain interest paid or accrued during the taxable year on indebtedness, including interest paid or incurred on a mortgage obligation of a trade or business.
In IRS Notice 2020-32, the IRS clarifies that no deduction is allowed for an expense that is otherwise deductible if payment of the expense results in forgiveness of a covered loan pursuant to the CARES Act and the income associated with the forgiveness is excluded from gross income under the law.
The Notice states that “this treatment prevents a double tax benefit.” Two members of Congress say they’re opposed to the IRS stand on this issue. Senate Finance Committee Chair Chuck Grassley (R-IA) and his counterpart in the House, Ways and Means Committee Chair Richard E. Neal (D-MA), oppose the tax treatment.
Neal said it doesn’t follow congressional intent and that he’ll seek legislation to make certain expenses deductible.
At the moment, tax rates are at historic lows. We have record deficits and are looking to add more. Where do you think tax rates will be at in 1 year? 3 years? 5 years or more? Here are a few things to consider when thinking about taxes in 2020.
While everyone’s situation is different, we believe this is a serious consideration in tax planning for many individuals.
Most IRA fund balances are at a low point and many taxpayers may see lower income in 2020. This may be a good time to convert some or all your funds to a Roth IRA.
You can manage the tax brackets. For example, an estimate of income can be prepared to find out how much more income you can have to stay in the same tax bracket. This way you can effectively manage your tax burden.
If your modified adjusted gross income in 2020 for married filing jointly is $196,000 or less you can contribute directly to a Roth IRA. Income at $206,000 cannot make a Roth contribution.
You can contribute to a traditional IRA. You can then convert to a Roth IRA. There are other limitations so be sure to discuss this with your financial adviser or make an appointment with us to discuss how this works and if a conversion will help you in retirement.
The IRS has a $300 cash (not non-cash such as a Goodwill donation) charitable deduction for 2020 which can be used whether you itemize or not.
If you have not begun taking required minimum distributions (RMD’s) in 2020 you can wait until age 72 to start. The previous rules were at age 70 ½. Note that if you have already started your RMD’s you cannot skip them until age 72-you are bound by the previous rules.
There are other considerations for this so it is best to consult your financial adviser.
As a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis, your business may be using independent contractors to keep costs low. But you should be careful that these workers are properly classified for federal tax purposes. If the IRS reclassifies them as employees, it can be an expensive mistake.
The question of whether a worker is an independent contractor or an employee for federal income and employment tax purposes is a complex one.
If a worker is an employee, your company must withhold federal income and payroll taxes, pay the employer’s share of FICA taxes on the wages, plus FUTA tax.
Often, a business must also provide the worker with the fringe benefits that it makes available to other employees. And there may be state tax obligations as well. These obligations don’t apply if a worker is an independent contractor.
In that case, the business simply sends the contractor a Form 1099-MISC for the year showing the amount paid (if the amount is $600 or more).
Who is an “employee?” Unfortunately, there’s no uniform definition of the term. The IRS and courts have generally ruled that individuals are employees if the organization they work for has the right to control and direct them in the jobs they’re performing.
Otherwise, the individuals are generally independent contractors. But other factors are also taken into account. Some employers that have misclassified workers as independent contractors may get some relief from employment tax liabilities under Section 530.
In general, this protection applies only if an employer:
Note: Section 530 doesn’t apply to certain types of technical services workers. And some categories of individuals are subject to special rules because of their occupations or identities.
Under certain circumstances, you may want to ask the IRS (on Form SS-8) to rule on whether a worker is an independent contractor or employee.
However, be aware that the IRS has a history of classifying workers as employees rather than independent contractors.
Businesses should consult with the staff at David Mills, CPA, LLC before filing Form SS-8 because it may alert the IRS that your business has worker classification issues — and inadvertently trigger an employment tax audit.
It may be better to properly treat a worker as an independent contractor so that the relationship complies with the tax rules. Be aware that workers who want an official determination of their status can also file Form SS-8.
Disgruntled independent contractors may do so because they feel entitled to employee benefits and want to eliminate self-employment tax liabilities. If a worker files Form SS-8, the IRS will send a letter to the business. It identifies the worker and includes a blank Form SS-8.
The business is asked to complete and return the form to the IRS, which will render a classification decision.
Contact the small business experts at David Mills, CPA, LLC if you’d like to discuss how these complex rules apply to your business.
To help you wade through all the information about the COVID-19 stimulus payment, also known as the Economic Impact Payment, we’re offering tips to a few key things you should know:
For more information, contact the tax professionals at David Mills, CPA, LLC.
The IRS has issued guidance providing relief from failure to make employment tax deposits for employers that are entitled to the refundable tax credits provided under two laws passed in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
The two laws are the Families First Coronavirus Response Act, which was signed on March 18, 2020, and the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES) Act, which was signed on March 27, 2020.
The tax code imposes a penalty for any failure to deposit amounts as required on the date prescribed, unless such failure is due to reasonable cause rather than willful neglect.
An employer’s failure to deposit certain federal employment taxes, including deposits of withheld income taxes and taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) is generally subject to a penalty.
Employers paying qualified sick leave wages and qualified family leave wages required by the Families First Act, as well as qualified health plan expenses allocable to qualified leave wages, are eligible for refundable tax credits under the Families First Act.
Specifically, provisions of the Families First Act provide a refundable tax credit against an employer’s share of the Social Security portion of FICA tax for each calendar quarter, in an amount equal to 100% of qualified leave wages paid by the employer (plus qualified health plan expenses with respect to that calendar quarter).
Additionally, under the CARES Act, certain employers are also allowed a refundable tax credit under the CARES Act of up to 50% of the qualified wages, including allocable qualified health expenses if they are experiencing:
This credit is limited to $10,000 per employee over all calendar quarters combined.
An employer paying qualified leave wages or qualified retention wages can seek an advance payment of the related tax credits by filing Form 7200, Advance Payment of Employer Credits Due to COVID-19.
The Families First Act and the CARES Act waive the penalty for failure to deposit the employer share of Social Security tax in anticipation of the allowance of the refundable tax credits allowed under the two laws.
IRS Notice 2020-22 provides that an employer won’t be subject to a penalty for failing to deposit employment taxes related to qualified leave wages or qualified retention wages in a calendar quarter if certain requirements are met.
Contact David Mills, CPA, LLC for more information about whether you can take advantage of this relief.
The recently enacted Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act provides a refundable payroll tax credit for 50% of wages paid by eligible employers to certain employees during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The employee retention credit is available to employers, including nonprofit organizations, with operations that have been fully or partially suspended as a result of a government order limiting commerce, travel or group meetings.
The credit is also provided to employers who have experienced a greater than 50% reduction in quarterly receipts, measured on a year-over-year basis.
The credit is 50% of qualifying wages paid up to $10,000 in total. So the maximum credit for an eligible employer for qualified wages paid to any employee is $5,000. Wages paid after March 12, 2020, and before Jan. 1, 2021, are eligible for the credit. Therefore, an employer may be able to claim it for qualified wages paid as early as March 13, 2020. Wages aren’t limited to cash payments, but also include part of the cost of employer-provided health care.
The operation of a business is partially suspended if a government authority imposes restrictions by limiting commerce, travel or group meetings due to COVID-19 so that the business still continues but operates below its normal capacity.
Example: A state governor issues an executive order closing all restaurants and similar establishments to reduce the spread of COVID-19. However, the order allows establishments to provide food or beverages through carry-out, drive-through or delivery.
This results in a partial suspension of businesses that provided sit-down service or other on-site eating facilities for customers prior to the executive order.
No. The CARES Act doesn’t require employers to pay qualified wages.
No. Government employers aren’t eligible for the employee retention credit. Self-employed individuals also aren’t eligible for the credit for self-employment services or earnings.
Yes, but not for the same wages. The amount of qualified wages for which an employer can claim the employee retention credit doesn’t include the amount of qualified sick and family leave wages for which the employer received tax credits under the FFCRA.
No. An employer can’t receive the employee retention credit if it receives a Small Business Interruption Loan under the Paycheck Protection Program, which is authorized under the CARES Act. So an employer that receives a Paycheck Protection loan shouldn’t claim the employee retention credit.
As a result of the COVID-19 virus and stay-at-home orders across the nation, the federal tax filing date has been extended to July 15, 2020. The State of Illinois also extended its deadline to July 15.
For more information, contact David Mills, CPA, LLC.
With the events of the last few days (closing of schools and extending the stay-at-home order until April 30th) it’s clear the COVID-19 virus threat is greater than expected.
To protect you and our staff at David Mills CPA, LLC, effective April 2, 2020, we will no longer be meeting with clients until the stay-at-home order is lifted. Our doors will be locked, and reception areas will be closed to walk-ins.
For payroll clients: We will contact you about payroll delivery. This is a good time to consider direct deposit for employees. We’ll keep you updated on events as they happen.
Thank you for your understanding and patience during these unprecedented times.
If you’re self-employed and work out of an office in your home, you may be entitled to home business deductions. However, you must satisfy strict rules.
If you qualify, you can deduct the “direct expenses” of the home office. This includes the costs of painting or repairing the home office and depreciation deductions for furniture and fixtures used there.
You can also deduct the “indirect” expenses of maintaining the office. This includes the allocable share of utility costs, depreciation, and insurance for your home, as well as the allocable share of mortgage interest, real estate taxes and casualty losses.
In addition, if your home office is your “principal place of business,” the costs of traveling between your home office and other work locations are deductible transportation expenses, rather than nondeductible commuting costs.
And, generally, you can deduct the cost (reduced by the percentage of non-business use) of computers and related equipment that you use in your home office, in the year that they’re placed into service.
You can deduct your expenses if you meet any of these three tests:
You’re entitled to deductions if you use your home office, exclusively and regularly, as your principal place of business. Your home office is your principal place of business if it satisfies one of two tests.
You satisfy the “management or administrative activities test” if you use your home office for administrative or management activities of your business, and you meet certain other requirements.
You meet the “relative importance test” if your home office is the most important place where you conduct business, compared with all the other locations where you conduct that business.
You’re entitled to home office deductions if you use your home office, exclusively and regularly, to meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers.
The patients, clients or customers must physically come to the office.
You’re entitled to home office deductions for a home office, used exclusively and regularly for business, that’s located in a separate unattached structure on the same property as your home. For example, this could be in an unattached garage, artist’s studio or workshop.
You may also be able to deduct the expenses of certain storage space for storing inventory or product samples. If you’re in the business of selling products at retail or wholesale, and if your home is your sole fixed business location, you can deduct home expenses allocable to space that you use to store inventory or product samples.
The amount of your home office deductions is subject to limitations based on the income attributable to your use of the office, your residence-based deductions that aren’t dependent on use of your home for business (such as mortgage interest and real estate taxes), and your business deductions that aren’t attributable to your use of the home office.
But any home office expenses that can’t be deducted because of these limitations can be carried over and deducted in later years.
Be aware that if you sell — at a profit — a home that contains (or contained) a home office, there may be tax implications. We can explain them to you. Pin down the best tax treatment Proper planning can be the key to claiming the maximum deduction for your home office expenses.